Birthmarks are abnormal skin discolorations in spots that are either present at birth or appear shortly thereafter. They can be flat or slightly raised from the skin. They can be any number of colors, including red, brown, black, tan, pink, white or purple. Birthmarks are generally harmless. There are two major categories of birthmarks: pigmented birthmarks and red birthmarks.
Pigmented Birthmarks can grow anywhere on the skin and at any time. They are usually black, brown or skin-colored and appear singly or in groups. They can be moles (congenital nevi) that are present at birth, Mongolian spots, which look like bluish bruises and appear more frequently on people with dark skin, or café-au-lait spots that are flat, light brown or tan and roughly form an oval shape.
Red Birthmarks (also known as macular stains) develop before or shortly after birth and are related to the vascular (blood vessel) system. There are a number of different types:
- Angel kisses, which usually appear on the forehead and eyelids.
- Stork bites, which appear on the back of the neck, between the eyebrows on the forehead, or on eyelids of newborns. They may fade away as the child grows, but often persist into adulthood.
- Port-wine stains, which are flat deep-red or purple birthmarks made up of dilated blood capillaries (small blood vessels). They often appear on the face and are permanent.
- Strawberry hemangiomas, composed of small, closely packed blood vessels that grow rapidly and can appear anywhere on the body. They usually disappear by age nine.
- Cavernous hemangiomas are similar to strawberry hemangiomas but go more deeply into the layers of the skin. These can often be characterized by a bluish-purple color. They also tend to disappear naturally around school age.
Our team of professionals and staff believe that informed patients are better equipped to make decisions regarding their health and well-being. For your personal use, we have created an extensive patient library covering an array of educational topics, which can be found on the side of each page. Browse through these diagnoses and treatments to learn more about topics of interest to you.
As always, you can contact our office to answer any questions or concerns.
Candidiasis is the medical term for yeast infections in the body. There are three forms of candidiasis that relate specifically to the skin:
Oral Candidiasis (Oral Thrush). This infection is characterized by lacy, white patches on top of reddened areas that occur on the tongue, throat or elsewhere in the mouth. It is usually accompanied by a fever, colic or diarrhea. Oral thrush can be painful and lead to an uncomfortable burning sensation in the mouth. People who are diabetic, have suppressed immune systems, patients undergoing antibiotic or chemotherapy treatment and denture wearers are more susceptible to this infection. It is particularly important to catch it early in infants and children. Because of the discomfort caused by oral thrush, they may stop eating and/or drinking.
Diaper Rash. Candidiasis breeds in warm, moist environments and in the natural creases of the skin. Some diaper rashes are bacterial, but many are caused by yeast infections. To treat diaper rash, use over-the-counter powders and ointments and antifungal creams and lotions. Plan on frequent diaper changes to give the skin a chance to be exposed to air regularly. If diaper rash doesn't abate in seven to 10 days, contact your dermatologist.
Candidal Intertrigo. This yeast infection occurs in moist overlapping skin folds, such as areas in the inner thighs, armpits, under the breasts, below the belly, behind the ears and in the webbed spaces between the fingers and toes. It is more common among people who are overweight. It is characterized by red, raw skin surrounded by scaling and, in some cases, lesions that itch, ooze or hurt. Candidal intertrigo is treated with medicated topical creams.